NIP 28 Short Course SC23-T2 : Free-Volume Effects in Imaging Systems, by MiKe Molaire, MOLAIRE CONSULTING

Formulation Advice, Formulation questions, coating formulations, formulation consulting

NIP28 28th International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, Society for Imaging Science & Technology

Tuesday September 11, 2013 10:30 AM – 12:30 PM (2 hours)

 Free-Volume Effects in Imaging Systems by Michel (Mike) Frantz Molaire Principal, Molaire Consulting


The majority of imaging systems consist of dispersed and /or dissolved image-active molecules in polymeric matrixes. The glass temperature Tg of the polymeric matrix, the characteristic of the imaging mixture (compatibility, miscibility, thermal history), and the operating temperature critically influence the imaging process. The free-volume theory provides a framework to analyze and describe the impact of various manufacturing processes on the imaging process.

This tutorial will review the free-volume theory emphasizing the key and important concepts. Examples of free-volume imaging effects in photopolymerizable dry-film systems, photoresists, photoreceptor drums, sol gel overcoats and photochromic systems will be presented. We will further propose general imaging mechanisms that are susceptible to free-volume influence and techniques to overcome and minimize those effects


This course enables an attendee to: • Learn about the free-volume theory • Appreciate the importance of the glass transition temperature Tg in amorphous coating systems • Understand physical aging of glasses • Learn about several free-volume effects in various imaging systems, including photoreceptors, photopolymerizable compositions, and sol-gel overcoats • Discover how to differentiate “free-volume trapping” from “intrinsic trapping.” • Analyze the critical conditions for potential free-volume effects • Review techniques to minimize or eliminate negative free-volume effects


Imaging professionals; formulation, coating and process scientists; manufacturing engineers who want to become aware of a potential problem that only reveals itself to those looking for it. A basic knowledge of polymer science will be beneficial but is not required


Michel Molaire received BS (chemistry), M.S. (polymer science), and MBA from the University of Rochester. His experience includes polymer synthesis, photopolymerization, molecular glasses, optical recording materials, electrographic masters, photoreceptors, pigment dispersions, conductive coatings, castable polyurethane, image transfer materials, and dip coating technology. He holds 57 U.S. patents. Molaire is recipient of Kodak’s C.E.K. Mees Award for excellence in scientific research and reporting, inductee of Kodak’s Distinguished Inventor's Gallery and the African Scientific Institute Fellowship, past president and vice president of program, Rochester IS&T chapter.